Monday, August 31, 2015

August 31 On This Day in Australian History

Malaya and Borneo Veterans’ Day; today is the official date of commemoration for two historical campaigns involving Australian Defence personnel – The Malayan Emergency (1955–1960) and the Indonesian Confrontation (or Konfrontasi, 1965-1966).

1795 - Five escaped convicts, who had been living with the local Aboriginal people were recaptured when Captain W.R. Broughton, of H.M.S. “Providence”, put into Port Stephens because of bad weather.

1814 - New South Wales' first governor, Arthur Phillip, popped his clogs, aged 75.

1816 - Between 1816-1818 the Kidnapping of Aboriginal children became widespread. Government Notices continued to outlaw the practice, to no avail. In retaliation Aborigines raided settlers’ huts and burned crops. Reports of both practices appeared regularly in the government newspaper, Hobart Town Gazette - on this day 1816 The Hobart Gazette reported; "A few days ago a party of about twenty Black Natives pursued three of the Government Stock-keepers near New Norfolk, and began throwing their Spears at them, when the men turned about and began firing, but at which they not regarding still kept on throwing their spears : this made the Stock-keepers resolved to kill some of them, which they soon accomplished by leaving three dead in the field and taking one prisoner, and which soon made the Natives quit their military array and disband themselves - In the engagement they threw upwards of 40 Spears, which was very surprising that not one of them hit the men."

1819 - Land granted to Colebee and Nurragingy by Gov. Macquarie was registered.

1834 - Captain Wiseman’s vessel, the ‘Augustus Caesar’ visited Nahgi Island, discovering ship wreckage but unable to find the source, and sighted islanders on a beach nearby. This was one of the last sightings of the Kulkalgal people, who after open conflict with white settlers, slowly declined in numbers and disappeared.

1842 - First issue of Portland Mercury newspaper.

1849 - A hurricane blew down houses and leveled chimneys in Melbourne. The Yarra and Maribyrnong Rivers were in high flood. At Dight's Falls the Yarra rose 37 feet above its normal level.

1865 - Inspector Murray sent a letter from Rockhampton “I have the honour to request that you will inform me as soon as possible what authority I have to stop persons from encouraging troopers to desert from the Native Mounted Police and afterwards employing them – and what steps I shall take should troopers in such case desert?”

1869 - Sugar was extracted from beetroot grown at Campbells River near Bathurst, NSW, exhibited by J.F. Clements.

1870 - An intercolonial exhibition to mark the 100th anniversary of the landing of Lieut. James Cook at Botany Bay, NSW, opened at Prince Alfred Park, Sydney.

1878 - An Aborigine working for white people was killed at Smithfield, Cairns (QLD). there were a reports of "dispersals" (massacres) at Smithfield in 1878.

1880 - First Fremantle Railway Bridge opened (WA).

1892 - Uncle Toby's Oats was introduced by Sydney businessman and food manufacturer, Clifton Love.

1912 - Work began on the construction of Taronga Zoo, Sydney.

1916 - The Bulletin published a cartoon outlining the service of Aboriginal men in WW1 titled‘Too dark for the Light Horse’.

1917 - 10,000 people protested over Australia's inflation rate, which exceeded 20% per year.

1918 - Cpl Albert Knight (the second of 3 Aboriginal brothers to enlist) “single handed and in the face of extremely heavy fire Pte Irwin rushed three separate machine gun posts and captured the three guns and crews. It was while rushing a fourth machine gun that he was severely wounded. On his irresistible dash and magnificent gallantry, this man materially assisted our advance through this strongly held and defended wood; and by his daring actions he greatly inspired his whole company.” He was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal for his outstanding act of valour.

1919 - Electric train services commenced running from Flinders St to St Kilda (Vic).

1921 - The Australian Air Force was formed on 31 March 1921. King George V approved the prefix "Royal" in June 1921 and it became effective on this day.

1928 - The new blast furnace at Port Kembla, NSW, was lit for the first time.

1929 - Rockhampton Gas and Coke Co ceased electricity supply.

1929 - Electrical power supply opened in Proserpine.

1930 - William Burton sustained a minor hand injury when he was bitten by a shark whilst fishing at Geraldton (WA).

1931 - 31,200 square miles of Arnhem Land was set aside for Aboriginal people.

1933 - The township of Stuart in the Northern Territory was renamed Alice Springs.

1935 - The Cootamundra Gaol was closed after being in service for 49 years.

1937 - Iona Asai was (not fatally) bitten about the head, neck and shoulders by a Tiger shark whilst diving from the lugger San that was operated by the Protector of Aborigines at Mabuiag Island, between New Guinea & Australia.

1939 - Amateur Radio Licences in Australia were withdrawn on this day.

1939 - Three days prior to war’s declaration, No. 23 Squadron (RAAF) flew into Archerfield.

1942 - US Army Anti-Aircraft H 208 CA AA CNG departed from the South Townsville State School, having been camped in the school grounds for five months.

1942 - Sugar was added to the list of rationed goods. Australian citizens were limited to two pounds of sugar each per fortnight.

1945 – The Liberal Party of Australia was founded by Robert Menzies, the United Australia Party (UAP) was absorbed into the new Liberal Party of Australia .

1953 - The Morpeth Branch Railway Line (NSW) was closed between East Maitland - Morpeth (1st), and Morpeth (1st) - Morpeth.

1968 - The Captains Flat Branch Railway Line (NSW) was closed between Bungendore Junction - Captains Flat.

1969 - In what was presumed to be a politically motivated attack, a group of 'gatecrashers' invaded a party for campaign workers at the Melbourne home of Labor opposition frontbencher Dr Jim Cairns. Five men and two women seized Dr Cairns from behind and he was bashed and kicked unconscious; his wife Gwen was beaten and choked when she tried to defend him.

1970 - First direct telecast of Brownlow Medal count.

1970 - The Labor Party leader Gough Whitlam called for homosexual law reform at the Labor Women's Conference in Brisbane.

1975 - Australia celebrated International Women’s Day; The Australian Government held the first national conference from 31 August to 6 September on the status of women (Women and Politics) and committed Australia to celebrating International Women’s Day with other member nations of the United Nations. The conference generated a great deal of debate in Australia. Some conference delegates invaded the offices of the Canberra Times to protest about the coverage of the conference.

1977 - Philip Horley was bumped off his surf board and his left thigh lacerated (not fatally) by a white shark at Cactus Beach, Ceduna (SA).

1980 - The Bondi Lifesaver, that started out as a wine bar in a couple of terrace houses but eventually walls were knocked down to create a proper music venue, was a staple of the Sydney music scene for almost 10 years from 1971 until it closed with a bang on this day.

1984 - New South Wales decriminalised male homosexual sex for people over 18.

1985 - The Aussat 1 satellite was launched successfully from the Space Shuttle Discovery. The satellite was positioned successfully 36,000 km above the equator to the north of the Solomon Islands.

1986 - Transperth became an offical trading name for WA transport.

1987 - The Cowwarr to Maffra railway line closed (Vic).

1987 - Warwick Fairfax launched his bid to buy Fairfax company shares.

1995 - 24-year old author Helen Darville, writing under the name Helen Demidenko, had the distribution of her novel 'The Hand That signed The Paper' frozen amid claims of plagiarism and claims about herself and her family being fabricated.

1995 - The South Pacific Motor Club (SPMC) folded after 25 years.

1996 - Steve Spaulding owner of the Greed Sisters Emporium one of the early gay shops in King Street, Newtown, closed up shop due to upmarket rents.

2000 - Virgin Blue’s first flight was DJ214 from Brisbane to Sydney.The airline had one route, two aircraft, and a dedicated team of just 200 people.

2001 - Ministers of New Zealand and Nauru announced that they would take the Afghanistan asylum seekers stranded in Australian waters.

2001 - The Full Court of the Federal Court handed down its decision in the appeal of Lorna Cubillo and Peter Gunner. The Full Federal Court agreed with the trial judge’s position that the Commonwealth was not liable to pay compensation to Mrs Cubillo or Mr Gunner who said they had been wrongfully and unjustifiably affected by past practices in the Northern Territory.

2001 - The World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance (WCAR) began in Durban on this day. It was attended by ATSIC chair Geoff Clark along with ATSIC Commissioners Brian Butler and Commissioner Patricia Thompson.

2002 - A community forum supported the community celebrating Mardi Gras for future events regardless of whether the trademarks were bought by a private bidder.

2003 - The world famous Claremont Speedway, (operated from May 14, 1927 - March 31, 2000) had a monument unveiled by Dr. Don Robertson, the President of the Royal Agricultural Society of Western Australia Inc.

2006 - Second tunnel linking Esplanade Station to Perth Underground (William Street) was completed.

2011 - Australia's High Court dealt a heavy blow to the government by blocking its plans to send asylum-seekers to Malaysia, ruling they could not go to a nation lacking legal safeguards.

2012 - Indonesian fishermen rescued 43 starving, dehydrated Sri Lankans who had been adrift in a boat for nine days after their engine broke down while trying to reach Australia to seek asylum.

2013 - Muslim women were shocked at Mr Abbotts attacks on religious dress; Mr Abbott’s statement was that he found the dress of some Muslim women confronting and would not like to see such dress on the streets of Sydney.

Sunday, August 30, 2015

August 30 On This Day in Australian History

1807 - Governor Bligh suspended publication of the Sydney Gazette because of a shortage of paper. The next issue was 15 May 1808.

1833 - The ship Amphitrite, bound for NSW with 106 female convicts and 12 children on board, was driven ashore off France; only 3 persons survived.

1835 - The first European settlers landed on the north bank of the Yarra River from the schooner Enterprize (there goes the neighbourhood).This group was led by Captain John Lancey with Launceston builder George Evans and his servant Evan Evans, carpenters William Jackson and Robert Hay Marr, ploughman Charles Wise and blacksmith James Gilbert and his wife Mary.

1838 - In celebration of the Enterprize arriving with Melbourne’s first settlers onboard three years earlier in 1835 the first Melbourne Regatta (and the first of its kind in Australia) was held, making it the oldest regatta in the Fair Isle of Oz.

1845 - Thomas Shaw, of the Woolpack Inn, Parramatta Rd, Petersham, announced in Bell’s Life in Sydney and Sporting ‘ Reviewer that he intended “to open,shortly a full-sized beautiful bowling green, especially for amateurs of this true old English game.”

1853 - The last ship to carry convicts directly from Ireland to Australia, the 'Phoebe Dunbar', popped in (for a cuppa) to Fremantle.

1870 - The Intercolonial Exhibition of General Industries and Arts opened in Sydney. It was held at the Exhibition Building at Prince Alfred Park in Surry Hills and was a preparatory display for the International Exhibition in London in the following year.

1886 - Charlie Samuels from Jimbour Station near Dalby in Queensland outclassed his opponents in the final of the Eighth Sir Joseph Banks Handicap sprint race at Carington Ground in Sydney.

1890 - A bore at Narooma Station, NSW, struck the largest basin of artesian water yet discovered.

1906 - The first driver’s licence in Australia was issued in South Australia to William Hargreaves, who held the position of government analyst and chief inspector of explosives in South Australia. Trained as a chemist, Hargreaves had an interest in vehicles and fuel sources, and examined the feasibility of alternative fuel sources during World War I and II, even powering his own automobile on a mixture of molasses and petrol as World War I came to a close.

1916 – Rescue of the 22 men Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition who had remained on Elephant Island.

1918 - Australian 3rd Division commenced attack of the "Battle of Mont St Quentin".

1918 - The Aberdeen South Railway Line (NSW) was opened between Aberdare South Junction - Aberdare South Colliery

1932 - At both Bondi and Newcastle there were non-fatal shark attacks; both were men whose hands were bitten by sharks they had landed while fishing.

1943 - Augustus Downs Airfield, north Queensland, was disbanded.

1944 - Townsville Naval Headquarters moved from Australian Camp Hospital into new premises on the northern corner of King Street and Flinders Street East, Townsville.

1945 - All Heavey Anti-aircraft batteries in Brisbane were disbanded, including the 6 (385th) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Battery at Fort Lytton. The site is now the Caltex Oil Refinery.

1955 - A 5.8 magnitude earthquake, with an epicentre at Gabalong, WA, was felt 200kms away in Perth.

1959 - A Sandtiger shark left no injury to a male swimmer on this day in Tasmania.

1966 - Sydney student Peter Kocan was sentenced to life imprisonment for the attempted murder of federal ALP leader Arthur Calwell.

1971 - Members of Women's Liberation marched in Melbourne protesting against sexism in the union movement.

1975 - The first edition of ABC Radio's "The Science Show" was aired, presented by Robyn Williams.

1979 - A national union meeting of homosexual unionists was held in Melbourne. It was sponsored by the Australian Council of Salaried and Professional Associations.

1979 - The (Melbourne) monthly magazine Gay Community News (later Outrage) developed out of the Homosexual Conference newsletter.

1980 - The Sixth National Conference for Lesbians and Homosexual Men opened at Sydney University.

1981 - Drilling operations started at Noonkanbah when a convoy of trucks under police escort was sent from Perth. The WA government was criticised by the UN following a visit by an Aboriginal delegation. No oil was found at Noonkanbah.

1983 - Canberra joined the XPT network, bringing the National Capital within 4 hours 10 minutes of Sydney by rail.

1985 - The NSW Premier, Neville Wran, warns that doctors who do not comply with new HIV/AIDS regulations face deregistration and a $1000 fine for each offence.

1990 – Surry Hills massacre – Paul Anthony Evers killed 5 people and injured 7 with a 12 gauge pump-action shotgun at a public housing precinct in Surry Hills, New South Wales before surrendering to police.

1991 - A Japanese fisherman from Miyagi while on board the Japanese longline trawler Fukuya No.38, 100 nm northeast of Brisbane had a wee run-in with a shark that bit his arm, nearly severing it as the chap was finning the shark at the time.

1992 - The (national) Australian Greens Party was formally launched on this day.

1992 - The Sydney Harbour Tunnel opened.

1999 - The 9th Annual Drag Industry Variety Awards (DIVAs) night was held at the Star City Showroom.

2001 - The release of a report which showed that Indigenous art accounted for $36 million or 17 per cent of total sales through commercial art galleries in Australia.

2004 - Sydney's Pride History Group was incorporated.

2005 - In Australia protesters demanding an end to the Iraq war and a cut in Third World debt broke through a steel fence around the Sydney Opera House at the start of the Forbes Global CEO Conference.

2006 - Canadian miner Uranium One said it had approved Australia's fourth uranium mine, the Honeymoon project in the South Australian outback.

2007 - A major new study said nearly 10 percent of Australians are living in poverty despite a booming economy, but its findings were disputed by PM John Howard.

2008 - Ben Vining was bumped off his surf board at Tallow Beach, Byron Bay by a shark; he sustained no injuries.

2009 - A surge in sexually transmissible infection rates prompted the NSW Government to revive the safe sex message for teenagers and young adults in a new campaign. A third of sexually active teenagers have their first experience before the age of 14 but almost a third did not know they could catch STIs from oral sex.

2012 - Indonesian fishermen found 50 Sri Lankan asylum seekers, who were trying to reach Australia, on a boat with a broken engine and brought them ashore.

Saturday, August 29, 2015

August 29 On This Day in Australian History

1796 - ‘I have not my wife: another black man took her away,’ Bennelong confessed in a letter he dictated and asked to be sent to Mr Phillips, Lord Sydney’s steward. ‘We have had murray [big] doings: he speared me in the back... but I am better now: his name is now Carroway [Caruey]’

1817 - Explorers Oxley and Evans returned to Bathurst after unsuccessfully following the Lachlan River.

1826 - Governor Ralph Darling canceled tickets-of-occupation of land (from 1st March 1827) and substituted grazing licences at £1 per 100 acres.

1834 - SA Literary Association was formed by Richard Hanson & Gouger. Their book collection was the basis of the colony's 1st library.The object of the society was to satisfy intellectual pursuits such as literature, arts, history and natural science.

1836 - Sir Thomas Mitchell popped into Portland Bay for a quick cuppa and found the Henty Brothers in residence.

1837 - The Select Committee on Aborigines in the British Settlements tabled its report in the House of Commons. It noted that the invasion of Aboriginal lands by Europeans had intentionally or unintentionally led to the destruction of Aboriginal society, even genocide.

1848 - The Cape Otway Lighthouse was finally lit; after years of exploration work followed by years of logistical challenges and gruelling physical work in truly tough conditions. The construction of the lighthouse was an amazing feat. Manufactured in London, the lantern was brought ashore through crashing surf in small boats. The light mechanism consisted of 21 polished reflectors and lamps mounted on a frame.

1857 - Captain A.H. Freeling, the Surveyor-General, was in the Flinders Ranges on the way to Lake Torrens to confirm the discovery of George Goyder who had reported finding a large body of fresh water (Lake Blanche).

1868 - A 5.0 magnitude earthquake rocked North-eastern Victoria, Gippsland, Albury and South-eastern New South Wales. Not felt in Melbourne.

1882 - , Australia defeated England in cricket for the first time. The following day a obituary appeared in the Sporting Times addressed to the British team.

1916 - NSW Government Aviation School was established at Richmond, NSW, with three US Curtiss Jenny trainers.

1941 - Arthur Fadden, the second of five men who served as Australian Prime Minister during World War II, was sworn into office.

1945 - The Cadia Mine Branch Rail Line (NSW) was closed between Spring Hill - Cadia Mine.

1960 - Jack Brabham became the Formula One Motor racing world champion for the second successive year after winning the Portuguese Grand Prix.

1969 - Australia's last trolleybus service, between Perth and suburban Wembley and Floreat Park, was withdrawn from service. The trolley buses were first installed on the route in 1938 to replace trams.

1978 - The Sydney Morning Herald again published names and personal details of the 104 people arrested at the gay rights protests in Sydney.

1979 - A heliport was opened at Darling Harbour, Sydney, Dah-links.

1980 - First woman Cabinet minister in Tassie, Gill James, was appointed.

1981 - The seventh National Conference for Lesbians and Homosexual Men was held in Adelaide.

1984 - Following the 1966 Wave Hill Station walk off by the Gurindji people The Daguragu Aboriginal Land Trust was established by gazette notice to hold title to the land identified by the then Aboriginal land commissioners, Mr Justice Toohey.

1992 - The Sydney Gay and Lesbian Choir won the Community Choir’s section of the Australian National Choral Championships in Wagga.

1996 - The Sydney Star Observer was made available on the web.

1997 - After barely 5 months the new national weekly newspaper, The Republican, ceased production on this day.

1998 - All but one candidate on the incumbent Board ticket were elected at the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras AGM. Dr Happy Ho was the only successful independent.

2000 - A 5.0 magnitude earthquake that originated in Boolarra (Vic) was felt strongly throughout Gippsland and South Eastern Suburbs of Melbourne.

2000 - The Federal Government withdrew from the United Nations Human Rights Committees and will obstruct monitoring of Australian human rights.

2000 - The National Native Title Tribunal hailed as an historic breakthrough the first agreement to formally recognise native title in Western Australia and the largest native title settlement in the nation. The decision involved around 50,000 square kilometres, and a range of interests which included 24 pastoral interests, 28 mining companies, Telstra, the Shire of Meekatharra and the Western Australian government.

2001 – Graham "Shirley" Strachan, lead singer of Australian 1970s rock group Skyhooks, was killed in a helicopter accident.

2001 - The Border Protection Bill was introduced. This provided the Australian Government with the power to: remove any ship in the territorial waters of Australia; use reasonable force to do so; provide that any person who was on the ship may be forcibly returned to the ship; guarantee that no asylum applications may be made by people on board the ship.

2001 - Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth cricket team held a moving ceremony at the gravesite of King Cole, a player who died on the original 1868 all-Aboriginal tour 133 years previously.

2001 - Democrats Brian Greig moved an urgency motion in the Senate to “enact national laws against sexuality discrimination”. The motion was passed with support of Labor and the Greens.

2001 - Australian commandos seized the Norway cargo ship carrying 438 rescued refugees after the captain defied orders not to enter Australian waters.

2002 - The first International Desert Knowledge Symposium was held in Alice Springs to discuss issues surrounding traditional knowledge and culture.

2003 - A new study found the life expectancy of Aboriginal Australians was 20 years less than the general population.

2009 - Australian authorities intercepted a boat carrying 52 suspected asylum seekers, the 18th such vessel to be discovered this year.

2012 - An asylum-seeker boat heading for Australia disappeared off the Indonesian coast with 150 people aboard. Over the next 24 hours rescuers recovered 54 survivors, mostly males from Afghanistan.

2012 - A man in his thirties suffered injuries on his abdomen and right arm after being attacked by a shark in waters near Western Australia. Other surfers dragged the man from the water and he was taken to a hospital and was reported in stable condition. Authorities were unable to identify what kind of shark attacked.

Friday, August 28, 2015

August 28 On This Day in Australian History

1791 - The HMS Pandora, sent after those dastardly Bounty mutineers, met a sticky wicket when she was wrecked on the Great Barrier Reef. All 31 crew and 4 prisoners drowned.

1801 - George Bass returned to Sydney aboard Venus, with Charles Bishop Bass' co-owner of the ship.

1816 - Aborigines at Mulgoa speared and killed a shepherd, threw 50 of his sheep over a cliff and mutilated the rest.

1833 - Legislation was passed with the breakfast prunes in NSW providing for trial by jury in criminal cases.

1838 - The once successful explorer Charles Sturt was down on his uppers; failing as a farmer in NSW he graced Adelaide with his presence on this day after over-landing 399 head of cattle with Captain Finniss, G. Strangways, Mr McLeod and eleven men.

1846 - A Lands Act was passed in UK offering squatters long leases in unsettled districts and other privileges.

1858 - John McDouall Stuart and his companion reached Streaky Bay in a state of near starvation after travelling more than 1,600 km.

1858 - The Empire newspaper, run by the Father of Federation himself, Henry Parkes, ceased trundling off the presses (resumed its prattling in May the following year).

1860 - The peasants were revolting when Melbourne's Parliament House was attacked and stoned by an angry crowd during a debate on a controversial land bill.

1876 - Cape Moreton Provisional School, on Moreton Island (QLD) opened.

1877 - WA joined the other states in being declared severely drought affected.

1883 - The shores of WA, NSW and Tassie were scrubbed clean by a tsunami that began in Indonesia thanks to the efforts of Krakatoa exploding.

1887 - The Overland Telegraph Line was opened to Lawlers, Westralia.

1891 - The steamer Gambier sunk in Sydney Harbour after a collision. 21 people died.

1894 - The Paddlesteamer, the "Rodney", was burnt by unionist shearers in protest at it being used as a strike breaker; it was transporting non-union labour upstream to the shearing shed at Tolarno Station on the Darling River.

1894 - The second sighting of a sea monster off Newcastle, NSW, was recorded.

1904 - George Houston Reid was commissioned to form a government of Free Traders in place of Chris Watson's Labor government.

1910 - The Toronto Branch rail line (NSW) was opened between Fassifern - Toronto.

1911 - John Flynn, a Presbyterian Minister, wrote to his father in Victoria about his trip up the Birdsville track as far as Pandie Pandie station some 11 miles from the Queensland border.

1914 - In the wake of the outbreak of war between Britain and Germany P.E. Stolz, the Lutheran “Pastor for Germans and Scandinavians” in WA, wrote to the Premier pleading for “more generous treatment” of those “individuals, whose only crime it is, that they are of German blood, but otherwise citizens & loyal subjects of the State”.

1915 - Electrical power supply was opened in Barcaldine.

1922 - The North Coast Rail Line (QLD) between Pakula-Owens Creek opened.

1923 - Construction began on Parliament House below below Camp Hill in Canberra.

1926 - Lionel Laughton Hill became Premier of South Australia.

1931 - Hubert Wilkins, Australian explorer, reached within 550 miles of the North Pole in the submarine Nautilus.

1933 - The Brisbane newspaper, The Courier-Mail, was first published after the amalgamation of the Brisbane Courier and the Daily Mail.

1941 - Party dissension caused Robert Menzies to resign as Prime Minister and was replaced by Arthur Fadden. Under pressure from his political opposition he demanded the relief of the 9th Australian Division from Tobruk in Libya.

1944 - The Allied Works Council work force was withdrawn from Iron Range (Lockhart River).

1945 - Australian destroyers entered Tokyo Bay; Ships of the Royal Australian Navy joined Royal Navy and United States Navy ships in Tokyo Bay to receive the main Japanese surrender on 2 September.

1945 - A special tax was imposed to finance the new social services benefits.

1963 - The Yirrkala Bark Petitions, requesting an inquiry into the Govt removal of 300 square kms from the Arnhem Land Reserve for bauxite mining, were presented in the House of Representatives on 14 August by Jock Nelson, Member for the Northern Territory, and on 28 August by Arthur Calwell, Leader of the Opposition to the Governor General William De L’Isle.

1964 - In a drive to reclaim the Bagot Aboriginal Reserve land for prime real estate for Darwin's expansion a memorandum in the NT Hansard suggests the ‘scrubland and swamps [on the Bagot Aboriginal Reserve] provide the seclusion ideal for drinking and gambling orgies and other forms of anti‐social behaviour. The very nature of the land prevents adequate supervision by authority’. Perhaps referring to the initiation area, Gunabibi site and burial grounds.

1966 - The Main North Rail Line (NSW) was closed between Old Main North DE (1966) - Jct (Antiene).

1966 - The Main North Rail Line (NSW) was opened between Newdell Junction - Jct (Antiene).

1970 - The Save the Gurindji committee supported by members of Sydney Abschol (Aboriginal Scholarship Scheme), campaigned for a boycott of Vestey products.

1975 - The Henderson Commission into poverty tabled its report in Parliament.  Its key findings included revelations that an estimated 10% of Australian households were living below the poverty line in 1973, that fatherless families were the poorest, and that 250,000 dependent children were living in poverty. It also recommended the establishment of a guaranteed income scheme, and the boosting of pensions and child endowments which it declares to be "hopelessly inadequate" for large families on the minimum wage.

1984 - Weep, you smutty little devils....The NSW Government banned X-rated videos.

1993 - The first of six new $800 million Collins Class submarines being built in South Australia was unfinished but launched anyway.

1997 - The Federal Government announced it would provide $1.5 million for a Queensland Indigenous Higher Education Centre specialising in health.

1998 - A two-day meeting of over 70 members of the full council of the Northern Land Council reiterated its opposition to the establishment of 18 Northern Territory Land Councils, one of the recommendations contained in the then recently tabled Review of the Northern Territory Land Rights Act.

2001 - The opening day of the Kimberley region‘s week-long Aboriginal Law and Cultural Festival which attracted approximately 2,000 people from across the Kimberley region, representing 30 language groups. It is known to locals as Junba Nyanangarriyu Biya Yuwa or simply Biya Yuwa (pron: Bee-Yay You- Way, this is short for, ―Corroboree for Big Mob at 12-mile‖).

2002 - Sydney‘s first Indigenous Employment Centre (IEC) was launched in Redfern with the aim of providing services to Indigenous job seekers who were ready to move from part-time, unskilled employment to more permanent work.

2002 - SGLMG directors refuted administrators, Sims Lockwood’s claim, that the board was guilty of insolvent trading since mid-March.

2003 - The Queensland Government announced Indigenous workers across the Torres Strait would learn valuable new skills and enjoy improved employment opportunities, following a State Government grant to the Island Coordinating Council.

2005 - The Cross City Tunnel (Sydney) was flung open for business by the Premier of New South Wales, Morris Iemma, using the same pair of scissors used to open the Sydney Harbour Bridge in 1932, the Sydney Harbour Tunnel in 1992 and the Anzac Bridge in 1996.

2005 - Harbour City Bears celebrated their 10th anniversary over two weekends.

2006 - 800 people attended the 16th annual DIVA awards at Star City Showroom.

2010 - The UN Committee on the Eliminiation of Racial Discrimination (CERD) delivered a damning report on Australia’s failure to meet international commitments on eliminating discrimination.

Thursday, August 27, 2015

August 27 On This Day in Australian History

1814 - William Cox, whilst making a road through the Blue Mountains, named his guides: ‘Got 2 Natives, who promise to continue with us. Joe from Mulgoa and Coleby from Richmond.’

1824 - Sir Thomas Brisbane, Gov of NSW, to Lt Miller in a letter that while Miller was establishing the Moreton Bay Penal Settlement; "You will take an early opportunity of establishing a friendly intercourse with the neighbouring blacks, but you will not permit them to an imprudent familiarity. Whenever they apprehend strayed cattle or runaways small presents are to be issued to them of food, tomahawks, or fish hooks and you are to punish very severely any ill treatment of them."

1830 - Part of the GOVERNMENT NOTICE.NO 166.Colonial Secretary's Office, issued on this day read,".....Any wanton attack against he inoffensive tribes on the west and south west districts of the Colony, or against the tribes inhabiting the adjacent islands, or against any aborigines who manifest a disposition to conciliate and to surrender themselves will undoubtedly be vigorously prosecuted; but it is not expected, much less required, that the settlers are calmly to wait in their dwellings to sustain the repeated and continued attacks of the tribes, who are manifesting such a rancorous and barbarous disposition as has characterised their late proceedings. They are, by every possible means, to be captures, or driven beyond the settled districts. By His Excellency's Command, J. BURNETT."

1841 - Police and volunteers killed about 50 Aborigines in an encounter near Rufus River, south-western NSW.

1841 - An extensive Aboriginal massacre at Lake Minimup in Western Australia, lead by Captain John Molloy who "gave special instructions that no woman or child should be killed, but that no mercy should be offered the men. A strong and final lesson must be taught the blacks. ... The white men had no mercy. The black men were killed by dozens, and their corpses lined the route of march of the avengers."

1853 - The Argus (Vic) announced that Smith and Pritchard had won first prize for their Legislative Council design. John George Knight and Thomas Kemp won first prize for the Government House design.

1858 -Sixteen year old Nathan Cohen, future successful businessman, arrived in Tamworth from Newcastle so he could go to work in his uncle William Cohen’s store on Ebsworth Street.

1861 - Francis Gregory, lesser-known explorer in Western Australia, tripped over the De Grey River which he named after one of his sponsors, Lord De Grey. It was from the De Grey River that many expeditions later departed to explore further eastwards.

1867 - In Tamworth, Esther and Nathan Cohen gave birth to Ida Cohen who married her first cousin Victor Cohen in 1901 with whom she had three sons: George, Nathan and Alan; Ida Cohen (MBE) lived to the age of 102 and was a staunch supporter of a wide range charitable and community causes until her final years.

1870 – John Forrest rocked up in Adelaide from Perth, after leading an expedition on a Sunday stroll along the south coast via the Great Australian Bight.

1883 - The explosion of Krakatoa was heard in Australia, while the air waves were detected all over the world.

1883 - A tsunami tickled the coastline of Westralia as a result of Krakatoa blowing its top in Indonesia.

1884 - As drought and an economic depression began to bite, the Planters Association in Mackay, Qld, voted to cut wages by 10 percent.

1890 - Perth GPO was formally opened by the Administrator of WA, Sir Malcolm Fraser before the process of moving the GPO to the new premises was completed.

1891 - Brisbanes first wool sales were held.

1902 - The Women's Franchise Act gave women the right to vote in state elections in NSW.

1907 - American born F. Peters began whipping up that icy goodness known as Peters Ice Cream in Sydney.

1914 - In the wake of the outbreak of WW1 the German merchant ship, Thuringen, was captured off Wajemup (Rottnest Island) and became property of the Crown.

1915 - The second major assault on Hill 60 at Çanakkale (Gallipoli) was made by the Allies (NZ, Australia, India and UK).

1920 - Electric train services commenced running from Flinders St to Williamstown (Vic).

1922 - Electric train services commenced running from Mordialloc to Frankston (Vic).

1928 - After an all night flight from Perth Squadron-Leader Kingsford- Smith and the crew of the ‘Southern Cross’ landed at Parafield at 7.48 am. They were returning from a non-stop flight from Melbourne to Perth which took 23 ½ hours and was described as ‘a feat unparalleled in Australia’.

1934 - Florence Linda Platt aka Linda Agostini aka the infamous Pyjama Girl murder victim was killed. The body, dressed in pyjamas, was discovered along the side of Howlong Road near Albury in a culvert running under the road. Slightly concealed and badly burnt her identity could not be established. After the initial investigation failed to identify her, the body was taken to Sydney where it was put on public exhibition. She was preserved in a bath of formalin at the Sydney University Medical School until 1942, then transferred to police headquarters until 1944 when she was finally identified from dental records as Linda Agostini. Her husband, Antonio Agostinin confessed to accidentally killing her; he was tried, acquitted of murder but found guilty of manslaughter, sentenced for 6 years, released in 1948 then deported to Italy.

1936 - The A.C.T.U. embarked on a 2 minute strike in support of its push for a 40 hour working week.

1942 - Broome was again bombed by the Japanese.

1944 - The disappearance of Vultee Vengeance dive-bomber A27-295 in south-west Western Australia on this day triggered one of the largest searches in Australian history. The aircraft from No 25 Squadron was on a routine navigational training flight when it encountered bad weather and lost its way. The two-man crew was forced to bale out when A27-295 ran out of fuel. The initial air search for the missing pair focused north-east of RAAF Base Pearce, but this error was realised only when the pilot walked into a remote farm 100 kilometres south of Southern Cross on 31 August. On 2 September, the wreckage of the Vengeance was spotted from the air 25 kilometres further east. A huge ground search by Defence personnel and police failed to find the navigator either in the wreck or anywhere along the aircraft’s presumed route, although the effort continued until 16 September.

1957 - The Democratic Labor Party formed in a breakaway of anti-Communist groups from the Australian Labor Party.

1969 - The very first issue of the Homosexual Law Reform Society of the A.C.T newsletter was published.

1970 - The Southern hairy-nosed wombat is adopted as the official faunal emblem of South Australia.

1970 - Interior Minister Peter Nixon on behalf of the Federal Government declared it would not recognise claims of Aboriginal people to traditional land. Aboriginal squatters claimed part of the NT station, Wave Hill, but the Government’s decision meant that even if relinquished by the owners, it would not be reallocated to the Aboriginal people.

1971 - At The Aboriginal Legal Service, then located at 142 Regent St, Redfern, a 24 hour answering service came into operation.

1973 - The South Australian government offered a $5,000 reward for information about the disappearance of Joanne Ratliffe and Kirste Gordon. The hunt for the two girls intensified with the setting up of a special operations centre and a task force of twenty police officers. It was the biggest investigation of its kind in South Australia since the mysterious disappearance of the three Beaumont children from Glenelg Beach in January 1966. It was widely believed that the Adelaide Oval abduction and the Beaumont were the work of the same man. Descriptions of the suspect in both cases were very similar, the modus operandi was similar, and in both cases the suspect and the children all vanished without trace. Neither case has ever been solved.

1978 - 104 people taking part in a march for homosexual rights were arrested in Sydney.

1978 - Labor Senator Susan Ryan opened the 4th National Homosexual Conference in Paddington Town Hall, Sydney. The conference theme was Homosexuals at Work. The Gay Trade Unionists’ Group and the Australian Gay Archives were formed at the Conference

1978 - Police arrested 73 Gay Rights protesters at Taylor Square and 31 protesters were arrested at the Right to Life Rally in Hyde Park. (The total arrested was now 178).

1978 - A workshop was held at the Fourth National Homosexual Conference in Sydney where it was agreed to establish a gay archives. The workshop discussed ‘A Proposal For An Australian Gay Archives’ presented by Graham Carbery. The workshop submitted a motion which was passed at the final plenary session of the conference that formally endorsed the establishment of the Australian Gay Archives

1983 - Old Club 80 was raided and 11 men were charged. A hastily organised march attracted 300 to a sit-down protest in Taylor Square.

1988 - 26th - 28th August - 200 people with AIDS, ARC (AIDS related condition) and HIV, attended the first “Living Well” conference.

1991 - South Sydney City council approved a proposal to erect a Gay and Lesbian Holocaust Memorial in Green Park.

1992 - The Australian Indigenous Peoples Party was formally launched, at a meeting where every major Aboriginal and Islander community organisation from the Brisbane metropolitan area was represented.

1995 - Queerlit 95 Australia’s largest lesbian and gay literary event was held at Rozelle Writers’ Centre.

1995 - 200 protested against the Fox Corporation’s planned development of the Royal Agricultural Showground in Sydney and the absence of a transparent planning and consent process.

2001 - Australia denied access to the Tampa, a Norwegian cargo ship carrying some 433 refugees, mostly from Afghanistan, who had been rescued from a sinking Indonesian ferry.

2006 - Final crossing of the Spirit of Tasmania III from Sydney to Devonport.

2009 - Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner Tom Calma outlined the proposed model for a new national Indigenous representative body to fill the void since the demise of ATSIC in 2004. The model enables representation by Indigenous land councils, peak bodies and other Indigenous organisations, as well as a place for leaders operating at all levels. It has a 50/50 gender rule for representatives and an overseeing role of an ethics committee.

2009 - A senior UN official condemned Australia's controversial intervention into remote Aboriginal communities, describing the measures as discriminatory and finding entrenched racism in Australia.

2009 - A new dinosaur species was discovered in Australia by paleontologists on a sheep farm in Queensland. The fossils of the dinosaur were estimated to be around 97 million years old and belong to an herbivore sauropod.

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